Water is one of the most important elements in life. It takes about seventy percent of the earth’s surface and sixty percent of the human body. However, about ninety-eight percent of water on the earth is water from the ocean and cannot be used for human consumption. Only about two percent is considered fresh and a percentage of it is in form of polar ice caps and glaciers. The need for clean water is at large because it powers up the human body. Fresh or clean water is a known renewable source.
The most common sources of clean water are the surface water, under river flow, groundwater, frozen water and desalination. Surface water refers to the water in lakes, rivers and other fresh wetlands. Though surface water diminishes when discharged as evaporation, groundwater recharge and released to the oceans, it is also refilled through precipitation process. Under river flow source is the naturally flowing fresh watercourse in the river. Water from the groundwater source is the fresh water that is found in the subsurface opening space among the soil and rocks. Groundwater can be augmented by the water inflow from surface water and reduces by springs and outflow to the oceans. The frozen water represented by icebergs and glaciers have been planned to use as water source but has not succeeded up to this time. Desalination is a process in which saline water is renewed to become fresh water. Some of the popular desalination processes are the reverse osmosis and distillation.
Sources of fresh and clean water take up a very small percentage in the over-all quantity of water in the globe. And people cannot create clean water but can only manage water sources. Though we are not yet on the verge of water scarcity, the idea that water which can be consumed by human is of little amount only is a distressing thing to think about. Nowadays, there are available distribution systems that are used to transport the clean water from the sources to human. Each nation and culture has different distribution systems. The most common are the reservoirs, pipes and pumps that are used to transfer water directly to homes and establishments.
The water used in these distribution systems came from either groundwater or surface water or water that has undergone purifying treatments. Whatever distribution systems are used, they all came with infrastructure that are costly. Even the maintenance and distribution of these systems requires money. In addition, it is very important that these are properly taken care of because once they flop, contamination and pollution sets in resulting to serious health damages.